Interactive Voice Response (IVR) research allows respondents to take surveys by interacting with a computer using a telephone touch pad instead of a computer keyboard, incoming telephone call, direct mail questionnaire, or face-to-face interview. Respondents call a toll-free phone number, enter a code, and then take a survey. Respondents enter their responses by using the touch-buttons on the phone's keypad. If a "voice capture" feature is used, open-ended responses are digitally recorded when the respondent speaks into the phone's mouthpiece. The data captured are available almost instantaneously to the researcher. A common application of IVR is to combine the technology with a respondent incentive. For example, phone cards, preloaded with a given amount of phone time, are printed with the survey company's name and phone number for respondents to call. The cards are disseminated to the desired respondent universe with instructions that by calling the phone number printed on the card and completing the survey, the respondent will be given the activation number for the free phone minutes. Dissemination of the cards can be by mail or in person, the latter being of particular benefit when trying to research a universe that is gathered in one place for a brief point in time (car races, bars, mall openings, state fairs, etc.). The IVR application works particularly well among respondents who are less likely to be willing to accept telephone/intercept interviews and among respondents who do not have computer or Internet access. Additionally, respondents with literacy limitations and those with language barriers to English are easily accommodated by this technology. It should be noted that IVR research technology can be combined with more traditional research techniques to form a hybrid interview methodology. For example, if certain stimuli need to be presented, such as pictures of new package designs, the stimuli can be provided to the respondent on paper and then the survey administered via IVR.